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Glossary of Verbs used in Learning Outcomes

ORGANIZED BY COGNITIVE LEVEL

 
 
COGNITIVE LEVEL
 
VERB
DEFINITION
KNOWLEDGE
 Level of Thinking
 
requires students to recall previously-learned information
Define
Give a clear, precise meaning for a term or concept. While an example might help to clarify the definition, an example of the term or concept should not be used instead of a statement of meaning.
Identify
Recognize a structure, feature, component, etc. 
Identification could be done on a microscope slide, a microscopic image, a model, a drawing, or a dissection, as appropriate.
List
 
Itemize features or facts, possibly in a specified order.
 
Name
 
Specify the identity of a structure or process.
 
State
 
Express information or ideas in words or in symbols, such as chemical formulas and reactions.
 
Trace
 
Follow the course of something.
 
COMPREHENSION Level of Thinking
 
requires students to show understanding of material
 
Classify
 
 
Arrange or organize by category.
 
Describe
Explain
Explain how
Give the details to clarify. Depending on the particular question, a description or explanation could include the appearance or characteristics of an item or the steps involved in a process.
Discuss
 
Speak or write about a particular topic to clarify meaning.
 
Restate
 
Say something again in a new form, as in your own  words.
 
Summarize
 
Present the main idea in a condensed form.
 
 
APPLICATION
 Level of Thinking
 
requires student to use facts, rules and principles in a new way
 
Calculate
 
Arrive at an answer by means of computation.
 
Demonstrate
 
Do or show something physically.
 
Determine
To find out or establish something based on examination, experimentation, investigation, calculation or measurement.
Explain why
Give reasons to account for an observation or occurrence, perhaps applying known information to a new situation.
Give or Provide example(s)
 
Offer a representative sample or model.
 
Interpret
 
Clarify the meaning or significance of something.
 
 
 
 
COGNITIVE LEVEL
 
VERB
DEFINITION
ANALYSIS
 Level of Thinking
 
requires students to separate a whole idea or concept into its parts or to find a relationship between different parts
Analyze
 
Examine something thoroughly by breaking it down into its component parts.
 
Compare
 
Give the similarities that two items or situations have in common. 
 
Contrast
Give the differences between two items or situations. A difference should be complete (i.e., include something about both items being contrasted) and parallel (i.e., discuss equivalent aspects of each item).
Correlate
 
Establish a causal or complementary relationship between two things.
 
Differentiate
 
Show the difference in or between things.
 
Distinguish
 
Recognize as being different or distinct.
 
Relate or Explain how something relates
 
Show an association between.
 
 
SYNTHESIS
Level of Thinking
 
requires students to combine ideas to form a new whole
 
Predict
 
Make an educated guess about an outcome based on past observations or experiences. 
 
Propose
 
Suggest or put forward an idea for consideration.
 
 
EVALUATION
Level of Thinking
 
requires students to develop opinions or judgments or to make decisions
 
Evaluate
 
Examine and judge or appraise something by considering both its advantages and its limitations.
 
Justify
 
Give supporting information to defend a statement or an argument.